History of Cinema

Capturing Images

Persistence of vision: the phenomenon whereby the eye remembers what it has just seen after the object has disappeared. In film and video, this phenomenon is widely believed to account for our ability to perceive a sequence of frames as a continuous moving picture.

In 1500, Leonardo da Vinci give us a full description of the camera obscura an optical device that projects an image of its surroundings on a screen.

Leonardo da Vinci was well ahead of his time Leonardo's writings and notes long remaining manuscripts surely after his death those passengers from his papers dealing with painting were combined into the taratata della Petera this is where we find da Vinci's desire for painting to be a living thing. In 1515, da Vinci presented a drawing of a type of image projector that magic lantern which was later developed in the 17th century.

In 1832, Joseph Plateau introduced the phenakistoscope pictures on one disc view through slots and the other appeared to move when the two were spun in Butte. In America, the sealed rope was introduced by William George Horner.

Azeotrope used the same principle as Plato's phenakistoscope but instead of disks the pictures and slots are combined in a rotating drum.

In 1877, Emil Renaud introduces the latest findings on optical reproduction of movement: the praxinoscope. Similar to the seal throw, the illusion of movement produced by the praxinoscope was built on mirrors in the center of the drum rather than through the slot on the outside.

In 1872, Leland Stanford, the governor of California, insisted that a horse in full stride takes all four feet off the ground Stanford hired Eadweard Muybridge a San Francisco photographer to prove his point and settle $25,000 bet after many unsuccessful experiments.

Muybridge mounted a line of cameras alongside the racetrack and tripped the shutters for electromagnets as a horse and rider galloped down the racetrack and over short hurdle the pictures proved that a horse does, indeed, take all four hooves off the ground while galloping. Weybridge developed the projector to present his findings he adapted horn azeotrope to produce a zoo praxinoscope.

Cinematography Showcase

Development of Film

In East Orange New Jersey, Thomas Edison was privately working on perfecting his favorite of all his inventions: the phonograph. Edison assigned William Dixon to the project of developing a machine that could visually accompany his phonograph. For over two years not much resulted. They finely designed a machine— the mirror scope— that they thought might work.

In 1888, George Eastman devised the flexible film based cover for photographic and motion this was exactly what Edison and Dixon were looking for. The Kinetoscope is a continuous loop of film that passed over a series of rollers and in front of a lens but it had a flaw. It allowed only one person at a time to watch the moving images being put on display. Thomas Armand found that what the camera did to hold a film stationary while the images were being photographed could be repeated in a projection mechanism itself.

In 1885 in Atlanta Georgia, Armond made a vital connection. He demonstrated a projector that worked. The Lumiere family is the biggest manufacturer of photographic plates in Europe. A local Kinetoscope exhibitor asked brothers Luis and Augusta Lumiere to make films, which are cheaper than the one sold by Edison. Louis and Augusta designed the cinematograph. A camera which serves as both a recording device and a projecting device. The cinematograph uses flexible film cut into 35 millimeter white strips and used an intermediate mechanism modeled on the sewing machine.

The camera shot film has 16 frames per second rather than the 46 which Edison used. This became the standard film rate for nearly 25 years. The arrival of a train is considered by most to be the first motion picture presenting to a large public audience. This cinematic experiment demonstrated the lemierre's new invention: the cinematograph. Which captured a train arriving at a passenger station the audience were startled and started a panic as the train moved towards them. So, who invented film? While film itself was invented by George Easton; the motion picture was an invention of many inventors. It was all just a matter of putting the pieces together.

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